The Blessed Cursed Tree
June 19, 2019 by Nicholas Batzig
An important biblical theological idea emerges out of Paul's use of Deuteronomy 21:23 in Galatians 3:13. In the middle of the most polemical book in the New Testament, Paul made the astounding declaration: "Christ has redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become a curse for us (for it is written, 'Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree')." The immediate context shows that the curse to which Paul is referring is the curse of the law (Gal. 3:10-11). Returning to Deuteronomy 21, out of which Paul takes the command for capital punishment and applies it to Christ, we discover the theological riches of Gal. 3:13. In Deuteronomy 21:23 we read:
"If a man has committed a sin deserving of death, and he is put to death, and you hang him on a tree, his body shall not remain overnight on the tree, but you shall surely bury him that day, so that you do not defile the land which the Lord your God is giving you as an inheritance; for he who is hanged is accursed of God." (Deut. 21:22-23)
The civil law, given to Israel in redemptive-history, was meant to prepare God's people for the coming Redeemer. Just as the moral and ceremonial laws pointed to Jesus and our need for Him, so too did the judicial principles of the civil law. The civil law as a redemptive-historical guide is one that has often been neglected--and yet it is one of the richest in all the Scriptures.
Before considering the redemptive-historical purpose of the civil law, as it pertains to Galatians 3:13, we must turn our attention to the other purposes of the civil law given to Old Covenant Israel. God gave Israel civil law in general-and the death penalty specifically-to reflect His justice among the covenant people and the nations. In so doing, the holiness and justice of God was manifest to all. Additionally, the civil law was meant to restrain civil disobedience in the theocratic church-state of Israel in the Old Testament. The OT civil law was given because "bad company corrupts good morals" (cf. 1 Cor 15:33). The more unrighteousness was permitted to exist among the covenant people, the more Jehovah's holiness was obstructed.
The death penalty was the most severe of the juridical laws given to Israel. This irremediable punishment reflected what all men deserve by nature. God had told Adam, "Of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it, in dying you will die" (Gen. 2:17). In the Mosaic Law, the death penalty was accompanied by a public display of justice. Death came in by virtue of Adam's relation to the tree, therefore in the exhibition of the curse of God--in the civil law--the offending party would be hung on the tree as a reminder of that curse (Deut. 21:22). Physical death symbolized eternal death, by which the sinner was banished from God's favorable presence. When the life of an offending party was taken away, the curse of God was displayed before the eyes of others.
Not all crimes in Israel merited the death penalty. God had arranged a just system to adequately reflect the severity of the crime. We see this distinguishing characteristic in the phrase, "you shall put away the evil from among you." This verse is repeated nine times in the book of Deuteronomy (Deut. 13:5; 17:7, 12; 19:18; 21:21, 22, 24; and 24:7). It is used with reference to the death penalty for those worthy of receiving it. By putting away the evil one from the congregation, the influence of morally unacceptable practices were restrained.
The law always was, in and of itself, powerless to change the heart of the sinner. Obedience to God could never be legislated. Habakkuk declared, "The law is powerless" (Hab. 1:4). The apostle Paul explained this powerlessness when he said, "What the law could not do in that it was weak through the flesh, God did by sending His Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, on account of sin, He condemned sin in the flesh" (Rom. 8:3-4).
The limited restraining influence of the civil law served the redemptive-historical purposes of God. By its limited restraint, the nation could continue until the Redeemer came. In this sense, the civil law given to Israel was given to preserve the nation for the coming of the Redeemer; but it was also meant to prepare the nations for the Redeemer and His saving work through typological elements. The civil law, like the moral law was given to show men what they deserved for their sin, and set the stage for the punishment that Christ would endure in the place of His people.
The Law's powerlessness leads to a greater appreciation for the redemptive-historical significance of the civil law. When we come to the New Testament we do not find the apostles insisting on the church's implementation of civil law into the governments. Rather, we find them applying it spiritually to the life of the New Covenant church. The greatest example of this spiritual application comes from the apostle Paul's use of the phrase "You shall put the evil away from among you" (Deut. 13:5; 17:7, 12; 19:18; 21:21, 22, 24; and 24:7) in 1 Corinthians 5:13. The phrase, which was always tied to the death penalty in Israel's civil law, is now applicable for spiritual discipline in the church.
In the NT, the apostles apply case laws from the Old Testament spiritually to the life of the church precisely because of their understanding of the relationship between the law and the saving work of Christ. Galatians 3:13 becomes a supremely important example of this principle. Christ was judged in a human court in order to show, as Heidelberg Catechism Q. 38 states, "that he, being innocent, and yet condemned by a temporal judge, might thereby free us from the severe judgment of God to which we were exposed." There was something typological about the civil laws themselves--just as the laws of retribution/restoration were preparatory for the restitution that Christ makes for us in the Gospel.
The typological nature of the civil law given to OT Israel finds it's fullest expression in the execution of Christ at Calvary. The application of these laws from the national to the spiritual realm can only be accounted for by the "spiritualizing" and "eternalizing" of the preparatory nature of the Old Testament in the finished work of Christ. Geerhardus Vos explained this so well when he wrote:
Eschatological revelation is presented in the language of the Mosaic institutions. The New Testament first transposes it into a new key. Here in the New Testament it is spiritualized. In the Old Testament it is expressed in terms of perfection of the forms of Israel's theocracy. The holy city is center; offices, organizations, peace, abundance, etc. are there, but this all is to be eternalized in the Messainic era, and will be free of the vicissitudes of the present era. All this is the content of revelation.(1)
Paul's use of Deut. 21:23 in Gal. 3:13 establishes the point about the redemptive-historical purpose of the civil law when we give careful consideration to the context of Deut. 21. In Deuteronomy 21 we read of the case law concerning the disobedient son who was to be put to death. This case law (Deut. 21:18-20) comes immediately before the command of Deut. 21:23 to hang such a one on a tree. Though the law concerning the rebellious son was not the only case law in which the death penalty applied, it is not an accident that it is closely tied to the directive of Deut. 21:22-24. When Paul picks up on the relationship between Deut. 21:23 and the death of Christ, surely he understands that there is also a relationship between Deut. 21:20 and the suffering of Christ. Though Paul does not draw this out explicitly, it is implied in the use of Deut. 21:23.
Furthermore, undertones of Deut. 21:20 are found in the false accusations that the Jews level against Christ in Matthew 11:19. The nature of Jesus' ministry was that of "sitting with tax collectors and sinners." Because of the approach with which Jesus brought this joyous message to such "sinners" many of the Jews accused Him of being "a glutton and a drunkard." It is impossible not to see the correlation between Deut. 21:20, Matthew 11:19 and Galatians 3:13 when read through the lens of such passages as 2 Corinthians 5:21 and 1 Peter 3:18. Though He was the obedient Son who never sinned, He was constituted as the disobedient son. He did this so that disobedient sons might receive the righteous standing as sons of God through faith wrought union with Him. At the cross, the obedient son was treated as the disobedient son. In this sense, He "was made a curse for us."
While we may not have committed civil crimes by which we would incur the death penalty, we all deserve "the death penalty" from the Divine court for the sins that we have committed against the infinite and eternal God. If the punishment fits the crime, then the punishment for sin against an eternal God is eternal punishment. Vern Poythress explains the relationship between the death penalty in Israel's civil law and the punishment unregenerate sinners will experience in the hereafter when he writes:
For those outside of Christ, the death penalty for violations of God's holiness says something else...The wicked must experience eternal death, because they are violators of the holiness of Christ. God's love for Christ also implies his hatred for Christ's enemies and his zeal to vindicate Christ's honor. "Those who honor me I will honor" (1 Sam. 2:30) is true also at the last day. When Christ receives the full honor due to him (Phil. 2:10-11), all rebellion is utterly crushed. (2)
When Christ hung on the cross, He became a curse for us. The tree was a sign of God's righteous judgment. In the case of Christ, the tree was a symbol of death.
For us, it is now a symbol of life. Adam, the son of God (Luke 3:38), forfeited our right to the Tree of Life by taking the fruit of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. Christ, the second Adam, gives us access to the Tree of Life by hanging on the cursed tree. Sinclair Ferguson helpfully explains the relationship between the first Adam--and the Tree from which he ate--and the second Adam--and the Tree from which He ate (spiritually)--when he said:
What was the nature of Jesus' temptation in the Garden that made Him say, "Let this cup pass from Me--that's My desire"? That was a perfectly holy desire. Any other desire would have been an unholy and godless desire. Why? Because a holy man can never have any wish or desire or purpose to experience a sense of divine desolation. It was not within our Lord Jesus' holy humanity to ever desire to be in a position where He would cry out, "My God, I am forsaken by You. Why?"
The holiness of the soul of Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane was compelled to say to the Father, "Not that tree;" and in doing so He was undoing what Adam and Eve, in the Garden of Eden, did--because the tree in the Garden of Eden is described in exactly the same terms as any other tree--there's no other difference. If you had walked past that tree there was no crooked branches saying, "I'm ugly; don't touch me." There would have been nothing about the fruit saying "I'm horrible; don't eat me." Just read the opening of Genesis 3you'll see that tree is described in terms of its nature exactly the same way as every other tree is described. So there was nothing in that tree itself that make Adam say, "Oh, I don't want that tree."
What Adam was called to do was to say, "There is no reason in that tree itself for me to say I do not want it--except God has said, "Don't touch it." And so, at this point, I have to bow before God and say, "I trust you" even though everything in me says, "That tree looks absolutely delicious." That's actually obvious because God would not deceive a human being by making a tree that looked delicious and yet tasted poisonous...And so, as it were, on the other end of this strange spectrum of human history Jesus is facing another tree, and everything about that tree--in contrast with the tree in the Garden of Eden--is saying "You do not want me," and His Father is saying, "That's the tree whose fruit I want you to eat, and to do it simply because I'm Your Father, and I'm commanding You to save men and women in this way--So Jesus, take the cup." And the wonder of it all is (and Hebrews goes on to speak about those loud cryings and tears), is that He took the bitter fruit of Calvary's tree and consumed its last bitter dregs. That's why Paul said, "He became obedient to the point of death, even the death of the cross.(3)
Ferguson continues to develop this in the following way:
The New Testament doesn't make much of the fact that there is a connectedness between the tree in the Garden of Eden and the tree on which Christ was crucified except that we do have Man coming to the tree and the curse falling upon Him because of what happens at the tree; and then there is, inbuilt into the Old Testament law, that the man who hangs on a tree is accursed of God--and Paul picks that up...in Galatians 3:13 to say quite specifically "It's not accidental that Jesus was not stoned to death." There is a huge divine significance in the manner in which He died. That's another exposition of why it is that He dies by crucifixion and not by any other way...
That parallel then is rooted in the notion of Paul in Romans 5:12-21--I think it lies behind Philippians 2:5-11--that the first Adam is disobedient; the second Adam is obedient. The first Adam grasps at equality with God; the second Adam who possesses equality with God doesn't count it a thing to be made a special consideration for Himself but humbles Himself, takes the form of a servant--being found in human form--He dies, and not just dies, but specifically dies the death of the cross.(4)
1. Geerhardus Vos, The Eschatology of the Old Testament (Phillipsburg, NJ: P & R Publishing, 2001) pp. 118.
2. Vern Poythress, The Shadow of Christ in the Law of Moses.
3. Sinclair Ferguson "Why the God-Man?" from the 2011 Ligonier Ministries National Conference (at he 53:33 mark).
4. Ferguson "Q & A" from 2011 Ligonier Ministries National Conference (beginning at the 31:34 mark).
This article first appeared at Reformation21 in May of 2013.
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April 3, 2015The Crown of Thorns
March 28, 2015The Spiritual Stages of a Believer's Life
March 25, 2015Sing Your Heart Out
March 13, 2015Jesus and the Flaming Sword at the East Gate
March 8, 2015The Curse Reversed
February 19, 2015A Biblical Theology of the Trees of the Garden
February 14, 2015A Match Made in Heaven
February 8, 20156 Thoughts on Sacred Space
January 24, 20157 Thoughts on Sacred Time
January 18, 2015Imagining the Image of God
January 9, 2015A Divine Division
December 30, 2014Did Jesus Descend Into Hell?
December 23, 2014Rick Phillips on Jesus in the Old Testament
December 23, 2014A Law-Keeping Redeemer is Born
December 11, 2014Losing Loved Ones and Having Regrets
November 18, 2014The Internet: The Great Evangelical Op-Ed Tabloid
November 14, 2014A Romantic View of Ministry
November 12, 2014The Great, Redemptive Multi-Tasker
November 10, 2014The Sorrow and Joy of Imputation
November 6, 2014The Race is Not to the Swift
November 3, 20147 Ways to Avoid Becoming a Pastoral Ideologue
October 25, 20147 Wrong Reasons to Join a Church
October 24, 2014Jonathan Edwards on Adam and the Tree of Life
October 22, 2014Working on Learning to Rest
October 18, 2014A Biblical Theology of the Wilderness
October 7, 2014The Importance of Being a Pastor/Theologian
October 3, 2014A Church's Coming of Age
October 1, 2014Loving the Place to Which You're Called?
September 27, 2014The 6 Ingredients of Jesus' Bitter Cup
September 24, 2014The Christology of Genesis 3:15
September 16, 2014The Theological Significance of the Eighth Day
September 11, 2014The Righteous One of Psalm One
September 5, 2014The Covenant of Works, the Law and the Mosaic Covenant
September 4, 201410 Must-Read Pre-Reformation Works
September 3, 2014Mansions in Glory?
September 1, 20147 Characteristics of Spiritually Beneficial Friendships
August 29, 2014The Sin-Bearing, Curse-Removing True Israel
August 12, 2014Preach the Gospel to Yourself?
August 7, 2014Time for a Spirit Check
August 5, 2014The Sin-Bearing, Curse-Removing Second Adam (Part 1)
August 4, 2014Mini Sermons For the Soul to Sing
July 26, 2014Spurgeon on Expositional Reading and Teaching in the Worship Service?
July 21, 2014The Dangers and Duty of Confessing Sin to One Another
July 8, 2014It All Leads Straight to the Cross
July 5, 2014Geerhardus Vos on Supra- and Infra- Lapsarianism
July 4, 2014Jesus: The Breath of Life
July 4, 2014A Biblical Theology of Burial
July 3, 2014A Biblical Theology of Burial
June 28, 2014In Plenty and/or Want...
June 26, 2014Are Some Parts of Scripture Greater Than Others?
June 17, 2014Geerhardus Vos on the Mosaic Covenant and the Covenant of Grace
June 14, 2014Geerhardus Vos on Sides, Administrations and Conditionality in the Covenant of Grace
June 13, 2014Lord, Should I Forgive My Brother This One Time?
June 3, 2014Ezra and Nehemiah: Types of Christ
May 30, 2014What Was Jesus Praying in the Garden?
May 24, 2014How God Even Works Sin Together for the Believer's Good
May 24, 2014The Justification of the Good Works of the Justified
May 21, 2014Dangers of Theological Controversy
May 14, 2014The End in the Beginning: A Biblical-Theological Catechism (Genesis)
May 13, 2014A Tale of Two Trees
May 9, 2014The True and Greater Sweet-Psalmist of Israel
May 8, 2014Jesus: The Wisdom of God
April 30, 2014The Death of Jesus, An Act of Worship
April 27, 2014Dr. John H. Skilton's Funeral Sermon For Rena VanTil--Wife of Cornelius VanTil
April 21, 2014The Person, Work and Reward of the Redeemer
April 6, 2014John Piper’s 10 Reasons Why Romans 7:14-25 Is About The Christian’s Experience
March 29, 2014How Jesus Read the Old Testament (Part 2)
March 26, 2014The Third Use of the Law and the Finished Work of Christ
March 21, 2014The Greatest Explanation Of What Happens In Conversion
March 18, 2014How Did Jesus Read the Old Testament (Part 1)
March 18, 2014How Did Jesus Read the Old Testament?
March 18, 2014The Christward Collective
March 12, 2014Jonathan Edwards Christology of the Song of Songs
February 20, 2014The Most Important Overlooked Doctrine (Part 2)
February 20, 2014The Most Important Overlooked Doctrine (Part 2)
February 18, 2014Jonathan Edwards on David as a Type of Christ
February 11, 2014The Most Important Overlooked Doctrine?
February 10, 2014The Most Important Overlooked Doctrine (Part 1)
February 5, 2014Pitfalls of Parachurch
January 29, 2014Geerhardus Vos on the Covenant of Works
January 22, 2014Reading and Preaching the Text in Context
January 14, 2014Death and Resurrection: The Key to the Old Testament
January 8, 2014A Biblical Theology of the Good Shepherd
December 30, 2013The Silence of Jesus in Judgment
December 27, 2013Lloyd-Jones on The Gospel and the Charge of Antinomianism
December 26, 2013A God-Determined Progress to a God-Determined End
December 25, 2013Ray Ortlund's Isaiah Sermon Series
December 21, 2013Learning to be a Grateful Critic
December 16, 2013Vos on the Historicity and Interpretation of Genesis 1 and 2
December 4, 2013John Calvin on the Great Exchange
November 22, 2013The Theological Greatness of Jonathan Edwards
November 18, 20136 Subtle Ways to Hold on to Self-Righteousness
November 16, 2013Paul, the Law and Eschatological Justification: Three Views of Romans 2:13
November 7, 2013Does God the Father Love You Because of Jesus?
November 3, 2013The Anatomy of Saving Faith
November 2, 2013A Crisis In the Divine Government
October 31, 2013Individual Personalities and the Gospel
October 23, 2013The Strongest Evidence for the Deity of the Son
October 18, 2013Make It Your Own!
October 15, 2013The Parable of the Three Sons
October 15, 20139 Traces of the Doctrine of the Trinity in the Old Testament
October 13, 201320 Things Jesus Does As The Great Shepherd
October 9, 2013Four Things To Keep In Mind For Your "Last Sermon"
October 1, 2013What Would Jesus Drink?
September 28, 2013The Grace of Remembering
September 16, 2013Stuart Robinson's 8 Point Interpretation of Genesis 3:15
August 31, 2013Suffering, Chastisement and the Fatherly Love of God
August 21, 2013Baptism in the Reformed Tradition (Resources)
August 20, 2013A Biblical Theology of Darkness and Light
August 16, 2013A Faith That Triumphs And Suffers
August 14, 2013We See Jesus: New Testament Use of the Old in Hebrews 1:4
August 13, 2013The Apostolic "We" Passages
August 6, 2013A Biblical Theology of Exile/Restoration in the OT Prophets
August 5, 2013C.S. Lewis on the Right of Private Judgment
August 5, 2013No Greeting From the Holy Spirit?
July 26, 2013Because There Was No Sun...
July 24, 2013Old Testament Personal Types and Shadows of Christ
July 16, 2013A Bad Court In Which To Be Tried
July 9, 2013The Wisdom of the Son (Law and Gospel in the Proverbs)
July 8, 2013The Emmaus Sessions: Christ and Redemptive History
July 2, 2013Tolerance that Parodies Love
July 2, 2013C.S. Lewis on Beauty and Idolatry
July 1, 2013John's Use of the Song of Songs in the Book of Revelation
June 29, 2013Book of Hebrews Resources
June 28, 2013Jonathan Edwards on Christ and the Song of Songs
June 16, 2013Sinclair Ferguson, William Still and Eric Alexander Crieff Fellowship Lectures (1979-2007)
June 10, 2013Jesus on the Inerrancy and infallibility of Scripture
June 7, 20135 Reasons to Join (or Not Join) a Church Plant
May 22, 2013The Songs of the Son (Seeing Christ in the Psalms)
May 16, 2013No More Consciousness of Sin?
May 12, 2013A Pastor's Love for Christ
May 8, 2013Why We Fear Grace
May 4, 2013Why Was Christ Veiled in the Law?
May 1, 2013Proud vs. Broken People
April 26, 2013When God Swears to God
April 8, 2013Taking Up the Hammer and the Nails (A Theology of Apostasy)
April 2, 2013On Getting As Little Truth As Possible
March 22, 2013Jesus' Compassion for Sinners
March 7, 2013The Difference Between a Prophet and a Priest
February 17, 2013The Holy Spirit Says...
February 16, 2013John Newton's Olney Hymn of Gospel Types
February 12, 2013The Importance of Time Management
February 9, 2013Jesus and the General and Special Revelation of God
February 9, 2013Sinclair Ferguson Sermon Series Collective
February 8, 2013Warfield, Biblical Doctrines and Confessionalism
February 1, 2013"Textual, Expository, Redemptive-Historical, Applicatory" Preaching?
January 31, 2013The God Who Loves Finished Work
January 28, 2013Jesus and the World to Come
January 22, 2013East of Eden (Episode 12): Jesus Christ, the Same Yesterday, Today and Forever
January 19, 2013Top 10 (or 11) Volumes on the Suffering and Glory of Christ
January 16, 2013Eric Alexander Sermons
January 15, 2013Edwards on Intellectual vs. Spiritual Understanding
January 12, 2013John Owen on the Apostles' Christological Interpretation of Psalm 2
January 6, 2013"We See Jesus" Sermon Series
January 3, 2013Symbols of Christ in the Wilderness
December 29, 2012The Parable of Three Lost Sons
December 16, 2012The Glory of Man at Creation and in Redemption
December 15, 2012Jesus: The Omega of the Old Testament
December 6, 20127 Years of the 9Marks Journal
November 16, 2012The Aroma of Christ
November 14, 2012East of Eden: The Biblical and Systematic Theology of Jonathan Edwards
October 27, 2012The "Signs" of Tongues and Prophecy in 1 Cor. 14:20-25
October 26, 2012A Divinely Inspired Anachronism of Eschatological Hope (or 'How God Enabled Abraham to Long for Heav
October 25, 2012Death and Resurrection: The Typlogical Structure of Old Testament Redemptive History
October 25, 2012When Christ Orchestrates a Prison Break
October 23, 2012Jesus Runs the Church
October 23, 2012Christ and the Tent in the Wilderness
October 20, 2012Jonathan Edwards on Righteous and Sinful Anger
October 18, 2012The Man Behind Monergism
October 17, 2012The Clean for the Unclean
October 15, 2012The Christology of Deut. 30:11-14
October 10, 2012East of Eden (Episode 7) - Christian Knowledge
October 10, 2012Christ's Gifts of the Spirit
October 8, 2012"Precious" New Puritan Press
September 25, 2012On Headship, Hats, Hair and Historical Context
September 22, 2012Sinclair Ferguson on the New Perspective
September 22, 2012The Emmaus Sessions: The Mosaic Covenant and Christ (Part 2)
September 18, 2012East of Eden (Episode 4): Dr. Ken Minkema & the Jonathan Edwards Center at Yale
September 18, 2012Sinclair Ferguson on Preaching Poetry
September 12, 2012The Emmaus Sessions: The Mosaic Covenant and Christ (Part 1)
September 11, 2012Jonathan Edwards on the Typology of the Showbread and Lampstand in the Temple
September 11, 2012Samuel Miller Publications Online
September 11, 2012East of Eden (Episode 3): The Most High, A Prayer Hearing God
September 5, 2012How Redemptive History and Example Meet in the Book of Hebrews
September 4, 2012East of Eden: God Glorified in Man's Dependence (Episode 2)
August 28, 2012East of Eden: The Biblical and Systematic Theology of Jonathan Edwards (Episode 1)
August 11, 2012The Theological Driver's Seat and a M16
August 11, 2012Sinclair Ferguson Sermons from His Scotland Days
August 8, 2012Archibald Alexander Publications Online
August 7, 2012Vos on the Typical Role of Moses and the Exodus (Part 1)
July 31, 2012John Gerstner Lectures
July 28, 2012On the Sabbath, Ceremonial Sabbaths, the Lord's Day and the Day of the LORD
July 21, 2012Christ: The End of the Law for Justification and Sanctification
July 13, 2012Jonathan Edwards' Seven Steps for Growth in Divine Knowledge
July 10, 2012Christological Principles of Typology
July 9, 2012The Emmaus Sessions: Christ and Redemptive History
June 28, 2012Adolphe Monod on Jesus, the Mystery of Godliness
June 28, 2012The "Not I, but the Lord...I say, Not the Lord" Sayings of Paul
June 26, 2012Jonathan Edwards on Self-Righteousness in Believers
June 16, 2012The Emmaus Sessions: The Abrahamic Covenant and Christ
June 1, 2012Christ Crucified: the Center of Gravity in Preaching
May 29, 2012William Still Sermons
May 28, 2012Noah, Jesus and Preaching to Spirits
May 28, 2012Teaching One Another In...
May 25, 2012Jesus Christ: Savior or Example?
May 24, 2012The Emmaus Sessions: Adam, Covenant and Christ
May 20, 2012Three Ways the New Testament Writers Quote the Old Testament
May 18, 2012Four Points about the Noahic Covenant and Redemptive History
May 9, 2012"Confessing Our Faith in a Non-Confessing World" Conference (AK)
April 30, 2012Vern Poythress on the Different Approaches to Scripture
April 26, 2012The Emmaus Sessions: A Tale of Two Seeds
April 17, 2012The Emmaus Sessions: The Church as the True Israel
April 14, 2012Spurgeon on the Amusement-Driven Church
April 9, 2012The Sermon on the Mount and the Savior on the Mount
April 3, 2012The Emmaus Sessions - Jesus: True Israel
April 2, 2012The Justification of Imputation
March 17, 2012The Gracious Judgment of Charity
March 3, 2012A Dialogue to Die For
February 27, 2012Feeding on Christ - 2012 Giveaway
February 15, 2012A Biblical Theology of Food and Drink
February 11, 2012Gospel Justice
February 11, 2012"Filling the Shepherd's Fold" Seminar
February 9, 2012A Picture Worth 66 Books
February 4, 2012A Cheap and Easy Way to Support a Church Plant
January 31, 2012How Jesus Confronted and Corrected Others
January 9, 2012Free Martyn Lloyd-Jones Ephesians Sermon Series
January 7, 2012Paradise Restored Series
December 29, 2011"For Unto Us" Sermon Series
December 29, 2011M.I.C. iPhone/iPad Accessories
December 24, 2011The Magi and the Scriptures
December 23, 2011Seeing the Savior in a Poor, Beggar Baby
December 15, 2011Isaiah an OT Paul and Paul a NT Isaiah
December 10, 2011Sinclair Ferguson Christmas Sermons 2005-2012
December 4, 2011Take Heed (December 2011 Tabletalk Article)
December 1, 2011Identifying the Colossian Heresy
November 21, 2011Reading the Gospels in Light of the Gospel
November 19, 2011Sermon Preparation Resources
November 19, 2011Sermon Preparation Resources
November 18, 2011How to Handle Criticism
November 18, 2011Sinclair Ferguson Lectures on Marriage and Parenting
November 17, 2011The Marrow of Modern of Divinity
November 7, 2011The Most Jesus-centered Devotional in Church History!
November 5, 2011The Peril of Wandering (November 2011 Tabletalk Article)
October 29, 2011Preaching Christ in the Proverbs (Video and Audio)
October 28, 2011Jonathan Edwards Center at Yale University Resources
October 27, 2011New Keith and Kristyn Getty Christmas Album
October 19, 2011Preaching Christ from the Proverbs (Lecture)
October 16, 2011The Obedience of the Second Adam and True Israel
October 15, 2011A Biblical Theology of Locusts
October 8, 2011The Inner Ring (October 2011 Tabletalk Devotional)
October 6, 2011The Double Crucifixion
September 30, 2011The Dangers of Seeking to Restore
September 28, 2011Sinclair Ferguson 2004-2011 Tabletalk Articles
September 26, 2011Don't Waste Your Grill or Boat
September 26, 2011The Astonishment of Jesus
September 16, 2011Luther and Calvin on Galatians 5:6
September 8, 2011One Thing Leads to Another
September 8, 2011Free Martyn Lloyd-Jones Sermons
September 5, 2011The Secret of Sanctification
August 31, 2011New James M. Boice Daily Devotional
August 31, 2011Second Annual Reformation Worship Conference (Oct. 20-23)
August 26, 2011The World Redeemed From Within
August 20, 2011The Spiritual Decline of Once-Healthy Churches
August 19, 2011The Hardships of Christian Ministry
August 17, 2011Purposes and Preaching of Parables
August 15, 2011Let Him Who Thinks He Stands...
August 13, 2011Holy War: Jesus Style
August 12, 2011PrCRT 2011 Conference - Alliance of Confessing Evangelicals
August 11, 2011The Elemental Principles of World
August 8, 2011Archives
August 7, 2011The Spirit's First Word
August 6, 2011Making Much of God as Father
August 5, 2011Vern Poythress Redeeming Sociology Interview
July 30, 2011Paradise Restored (Video Series)
July 29, 2011Christ is the Wisdom of God
July 28, 2011The Revelation of the Father and the Son
July 26, 2011Jonathan Edwards on the Demand and Curse of the Law
July 22, 2011The Cursed Christ
July 21, 2011Christ, The Savior of Biblical Interpretation?
July 21, 2011Calvin on Legal Righteousness
July 19, 2011Machen on 'Do This and Live'
July 16, 2011Forthcoming Reformed Commentary Series
June 30, 2011R. A. Finlayson on the Sufferings of the Second Adam
June 28, 2011Vern Poythress on Redeeming Sociology
June 24, 2011Propaganda 4 min. Gospel Video
June 24, 2011William Still On Christ Within
June 21, 2011Selected Articles and Posts
June 21, 2011The Deep Things of Christ
June 20, 2011Galatians Sermon Series
June 14, 2011American Presbyterian Father of the Faith: Rev. Samuel Blair
June 13, 2011Isaac Watts' Absurdity of Infidelity
June 12, 2011The Symbolism of the Ark of the Covenant
June 12, 2011A Biblical Theology of Time
June 2, 2011Hymns of the Christian Faith Series
May 31, 2011Church Planting in the Most Dangerous City in the USA
May 26, 2011The Lord our Righteousness
May 23, 2011The Baptizer and the Betrayer in the Old Testament
May 23, 2011Implications of Trusting in Something
May 7, 2011The Converting Light of the Gospel
May 2, 2011The Allurement of Christ
April 29, 2011PCRT 2011 Children of God Conference and Live Webstream
April 23, 2011Eric Alexander on the Cup of Bitterness and Cup of Blessing
April 22, 2011Rejoice in the Murder of Jesus!
April 22, 2011Lloyd-Jones on Preaching and the Use of Media
April 20, 2011Twelve Years of GPTS Conference Audio Online
April 12, 2011Edwards on Spiritual Pride and Self-Righteousness
April 11, 2011Simeon and Levi: Destroying with the Gospel
April 6, 2011Spurgeon on the Church Planting Magnet
April 2, 2011Too Busy for the Son of God
April 2, 2011Darrin Patrick Audio from the Sovereign Grace PLANT Conference
March 28, 2011Derek Thomas Called as Associate Minister of First Presbyterian Church in Columbia, SC.
March 23, 2011Rare Antiquarian Theological Book Sale
March 23, 2011David, Goliath and Representative Warfare
March 21, 2011A Sinless Life
March 8, 2011GPTS Conference Live Webcast
March 8, 2011Mercy Triumphs Through Judgment
March 5, 2011Rowland Ward on the Covenant of Works
March 2, 2011The Blood of Jesus Shed for Angels?
February 24, 2011On Church Membership and Fencing the Lord's Table
February 20, 2011The Idol-Crushing King
February 9, 2011The Resurrection Power of Jesus
February 8, 2011Ligonier Academy Bible College: An Interview with Michael Morales
January 31, 2011Which Systematic Theology is Best?
January 27, 2011The Church: Organism or Organization
January 19, 2011A Life of Blessing and Rest
January 18, 2011The Firstborn, the Levites, Substitution and the Redemption Money
January 13, 2011Highland Theological College Lectures
January 10, 2011Liam Goligher Called to Tenth Presbyterian
January 2, 2011Liam Goligher Candidating at Tenth Presbyterian
December 31, 2010Modern Judaizers?
December 27, 2010The Christ of the Nunc Dimmitis
December 20, 2010The Humiliated and Poverty-Stricken Savior
December 18, 2010Derek Thomas & Ligon Duncan Lectures on the Songs of Christmas
December 16, 2010Jesus: True Israel of the First Gospel
December 15, 2010Eric Alexander on Living "Life in the Flesh"
December 14, 2010"Westminster Confession for Today" Conference Audio
December 13, 2010An Unexpected Announcement (Luke 1:26-38)
December 8, 2010New Dale Ralph Davis Book on Psalms 1-12
December 3, 2010T. Desmond Alexander Audio Lectures and Sermons
November 30, 2010New William Still Republications
November 27, 2010Sinclair Ferguson Basics Conference Videos on Union with Christ
November 27, 2010Elisabeth Elliot on Hymnody
November 26, 2010Pray for Martin Downes' Daughter
November 26, 2010Forthcoming Jonathan Edwards and Scotland Volume
November 25, 2010Sinclair Ferguson on the Apostle Paul, Patrick Hamilton and the Voice of the Gospel
November 25, 2010Sinclair Ferguson on the Westminster Assembly and Baptism
November 24, 2010Mark Dever and the "Reading Richard Sibbes Aloud Project" (MP3 Series)
November 24, 2010Free DeGraaf and Ridderbos PDFs from Paideia Press!
November 20, 2010Pray for Edward Donnelly
November 20, 2010Kim Riddlebarger Amillennialism Interview
November 19, 2010The Faith of the Centurion
November 18, 2010Pray for Our Persecuted Sister in Pakistan
November 13, 2010Rowland Ward on God's Covenant Unfolded: Creation to New Creation
November 12, 2010A Divine Dialogue
November 10, 2010Lectures from the Heidelberg Conference on Reformed Theology
November 5, 2010Next Conference 2011
November 4, 2010Of Time and Eternity
November 3, 2010Exile and Restoration in the Death and Resurrection of Christ
November 3, 2010Law/Gospel Distinction in Calvin
November 1, 2010Houston Chronicle on the Resurgence of Calvinism in America
October 30, 2010How the Actions of One Man Can Affect the World
October 29, 2010The Ark of the Covenant and the Empty Tomb
October 28, 2010The Last of the Levites
October 27, 2010Preaching that Paints the Shedding of Christ's Blood
October 22, 2010John Fesko Interview on Baptism
October 21, 2010The Unimportance of what God's People Think About Him
October 18, 2010Sinclair Ferguson on the Trinity in the Upper Room
October 15, 2010Is the Fourth Commandment Still Required for Christians?
October 8, 2010Dr. Dennis Prutow Interview
October 4, 2010The Letter of the Gospel (Acts 15:12-41)
October 1, 2010The Exodus Motif in Luke-Acts
September 28, 2010Expositor's Conference Live Feed
September 28, 2010The Biblical Theology of the Pilgrim's Progress
September 25, 2010The Circumcision of Christ in Redemptive-History
September 23, 2010Exodus: Symbols of Redemption
September 23, 2010Full Confidence Conference Live on ReformedForum.TV
September 22, 2010Listen Up! $1
September 20, 2010The Son of Man in the Midst of the Lampstands (Rev. 1:9-20)
September 20, 2010Driscoll on Tithing
September 18, 2010David Gooding: A Theologian Worth Knowing About
September 17, 2010Phil Ryken Installed at Wheaton
September 16, 2010Stipulations for Mercy Ministry?
September 16, 2010The Mark of Real Gospel Preaching
September 13, 2010Cleansed By Christ Alone (John 13:1-20)
September 10, 2010The Impact of 9/11
September 6, 2010Promises, Promises
September 2, 2010The Transmission and Identification of the Inerrant Text of Scripture
September 2, 2010Expository Preaching- Youth Ministry Style
August 30, 2010The Mission of God is the God of Missions
August 28, 2010Contentment in the Ministry
August 24, 2010The Bible Is Not About You
August 24, 2010Toxic Tribalism
August 23, 2010Dr. C.N. Willborn Sermons and Lectures
August 23, 2010The Kind of People We Can Learn From
August 22, 2010He Sets the Prisoner Free (Acts 12:1-24)
August 20, 2010Revelation Resources
August 18, 2010PCA Position Papers
August 17, 2010What's in a Name?
August 14, 2010A Christian By Any Other Name...
August 13, 2010The Acts of the Apostles
August 13, 2010The Unwavering Resolve of Jonathan Edwards
August 9, 2010Pentecost 2: No Partiality (Acts 10:24-11:19)
August 7, 2010Was Cornelius Regenerate Prior to Peter's Preaching Christ to Him?
August 7, 2010Bringing Home the Bacon (Acts 10:1-23)
August 6, 2010Chad Van Dixhoorn & The Westminster Assembly Project
August 6, 2010Boaz: The Law-Keeping/Debt-Paying Redeemer
August 4, 2010Card's Biblical Lyricism
August 3, 2010WWSJ - (We Would See Jesus)
July 31, 2010A Brief Redemptive-History of Animals
July 29, 2010He Must Increase...
July 28, 2010B.B. Warfield's Confession of Faith
July 27, 2010Jesus Lives, and So Shall I
July 26, 2010Reasons to Leave a Church
July 25, 2010Gabriel Fluhrer Farewell Sermon
July 23, 2010Octavius Winslow Daily Readings
July 22, 2010Holy War: Jesus Style
July 17, 2010Anthony Selvaggio on Redemptive-Historical-Applicatory Preaching?
July 15, 2010Andrew Cherry and RUF at Georgia Southern Univeristy
July 13, 2010Phil Ryken's Final Service at Tenth Presbyterian Church
July 12, 2010On Being Shrewd
July 1, 2010Writings
June 30, 2010Keller on the Duty, Delight and Danger of Being Doctrinal
June 30, 2010Church Planting Dynamics: Gathering the Churched, De-Churched and Un-Churched
June 30, 2010The Presence of God Promised & Typified in the Death of Jacob and Joseph
June 30, 20102010 Ligonier National Conference Videos
June 25, 2010Koester on Revelation
June 24, 2010Ligonier's "Bits, Bytes, Blogs & Bibles" Pre-Conference Videos
June 23, 2010Was Adam a Servant or a Son Before the Fall?
June 23, 2010Spurgeon, Driscoll and Tickling the Oyster
June 23, 2010The Glorious Conquest (Acts 9:1-22)
June 23, 2010The Patriarchal Revelation of Job
June 21, 2010Improving Your Conversations
June 21, 2010The Three Days of Jonah, Jesus and Paul
June 14, 2010Tolle Lege: Take Up and Read (Acts 8:26-40)
June 14, 2010Ligonier Ministry National Conference Live Stream
June 12, 2010W.G.T. Shedd on the Genius of Augustine
June 11, 2010Tullian Tchividjian on the Nature of God-Centered Worship
June 11, 2010Alistair Begg "For the Sake of the Gospel" Audio
June 11, 2010Reformation Worship Conference
June 10, 2010Keller on Gospel-Ecosystems
June 9, 2010John Gerstner on Roman Catholicism
June 7, 2010Can't Buy Me Life
June 4, 2010Jay Harvey on Augustine
June 3, 2010What Made Paul So Great
June 2, 2010The Errors of an Inerrant Church
June 1, 2010On Dying Well
May 31, 2010To Die Is Gain (Acts 7:54-8:5)
May 29, 2010Australia's Sons of Korah
May 28, 2010Eric Alexander on Stephen's Martyrdom
May 27, 2010D.A. Carson's Advice to Pastors on Marriage Situations
May 25, 2010A Biblical Stategy for Church Growth
May 25, 2010Phil Ryken's Final Series at Tenth
May 24, 2010A Defense To Die For (Acts 7:1-60)
May 22, 2010The Continuing Acts of Jesus
May 21, 2010Theocratic Case Laws and the New Covenant Era
May 20, 2010The Apostolic Hermenuetic: Preaching Christ From All The Scriptures
May 20, 2010Britain's First Pro-Abortion Television Ad
May 19, 2010Beck, Lillback, Mohler and DeYoung on Social Justice
May 19, 2010Octavius Winslow Book Giveaway
May 17, 2010Why Did God Live in a Tent?
May 17, 2010A Day in the Life of an Extraordinary Man
May 16, 2010R.C. Sproul on the Importance of Tithing
May 15, 2010Tim Keller on Contentment
May 15, 2010Pipa Lecture on William Perkins
May 15, 2010Godly Men: The Divine Methodology
May 14, 2010On Earth As It Is In Heaven - Tullian Tchividjian's Blog
May 14, 2010R.C. Sproul and the Ligonier Teaching Fellows
May 13, 2010Acceptance and Persecution
May 13, 2010R.C. Sproul's Successor(s)
May 10, 2010Choosing Seven Servants (Acts 6:1-7)
May 10, 2010Michael Reeves on Adam and Eve
May 10, 2010On Not Being Good Enough for the Gospel
May 8, 2010Discrimination and the Seven Servants
May 7, 2010The Imperative of the Indicative: Preaching Christ from the Gospels
May 6, 2010Separated at Birth?
May 5, 2010Advice on Reading Noteworthy Theological Chapters, Articles and Sermons
May 4, 2010The Family Tree of Reformed Biblical Theology
May 3, 2010Above All Earthly Powers
April 30, 2010Tim Keller on Proverbs, Community and Culture
April 30, 2010Roy Taylor's Presentation of the PCA Strategic Plan
April 30, 2010Christ and Culture: Common Grace, Natural Law and Eschatology
April 30, 2010The Donkey Driven Church
April 30, 2010The Love is in the Small Things
April 30, 2010The Connected Kingdom Podcast
April 28, 2010Sinclair Ferguson on the Nature of Grace
April 28, 2010Uncovering Noah's Ark?
April 28, 2010T4G Videos
April 28, 2010Martin Downes on the Heidelcast
April 28, 2010PCRT Live Feed April 30-May 2, 2010
April 26, 2010Poythress on the Role of the Presence of God in Exegesis
April 26, 2010The Devil's in the Resales
April 24, 2010"Me-Monsters" and Social Media
April 23, 2010Alexander Brown Called as Pastor of Golden Isles PCA
April 23, 2010The Proposed PCA Strategic Plan
April 21, 2010N.T. Wright's Redeemer Prebyterian Church Lecture
April 19, 2010Ligonier National Conference Ticket Giveaway
April 19, 2010Burk Parsons on the Wisdom of Listening
April 19, 2010...So Could I!
April 19, 2010Meditations on Isaiah 53 (Part 3)
April 17, 20102010 Greenville PCRT - Joel Beeke on "The Age of the Spirit"
April 17, 20102010 Greenville PCRT - Michael Horton "This Present Evil Age"
April 16, 20102010 T4G Audio
April 16, 2010Christ and Capitol Hill
April 16, 2010Meditations on Isaiah 53 (Part 2)
April 16, 2010PCRT Greenville Pre-Conference #2 - Cornel Venema on "The Olivet Discourse"
April 16, 2010PRCT Greenville Pre-Conference #1 - Rick Phillips on "What Cannot Be Shaken"
April 14, 2010Martin Downes "Heresy Never Dies" Twin Lakes Fellowship 2010
April 14, 2010Lex et Euangelium
April 14, 2010Meditations on Isaiah 53 (Part 1)
April 8, 2010Your Name in a Book
April 7, 2010Steps to Legalism
April 5, 2010PRTS "The Beauty and Glory of Christ" Conference
April 3, 2010Edward Donnelly Sermons on Preaching the Word
April 3, 2010More Walke on Evolution
April 2, 2010Free Sermon Hosting and Sermon Player Resource for Church Planters
March 31, 2010Ryken on Darwin
March 30, 2010Martyn Lloyd-Jones on the Honesty of Scripture
March 29, 2010Ground Shaking Prayer (Acts 4:23-31)
March 29, 2010The Alien Righteousness of Christ
March 29, 2010Pride: The Pastor's Worst Enemy
March 28, 2010L'Abri Library Audio
March 27, 2010John Knox's Theology of Prayer
March 27, 2010Samuel Miller on Engaging in Theological Debate
March 27, 2010Waltke, Bavinck and Evolution
March 27, 2010Q & A on Israel and the Church
March 27, 2010Sinclair Ferguson den Dulk Lectures
March 26, 2010Sean Lucas on the Importance of Protestant Confessionalism
March 26, 2010Jeff Waddington on Daniel's Model Prayer
March 26, 2010Christ the Center Discusses the Historicity of Adam
March 24, 2010Can This Be Wright?
March 23, 2010In Battle Array
March 23, 2010The Supreme Foolishness of the Message Preached
March 22, 2010Alfred Poirier Sermons
March 20, 2010The Battle of Battles
March 19, 2010Will the Real First Adam Please Stand Up?
March 18, 2010Performance Driven vs Gospel Driven Churches
March 18, 2010Death and Resurrection in John's Gospel
March 17, 2010Philadelphia Conference on Reformed Theology in Greenville, SC
March 17, 2010Why Are You So Repetitive?
March 17, 2010Jonathan Edwards on the Covenant of Works
March 16, 2010Tim Keller on the Proverbs as a Mini-Guide to Life
March 16, 2010Should Ministers Preach Christ in Every Sermon?
March 14, 2010Richard Gaffin Perspectives on Pentecost Interview
March 14, 2010The Restoration
March 13, 2010How to Degospelise the Gospel
March 12, 2010Understanding the Law and its Uses
March 11, 2010The Progressive Aloneness of Jesus
March 11, 2010The Value of a Sheep, a Coin and a Son
March 11, 2010Vos on the Covenant of Works and Sinai
March 10, 2010John Piper on Abortion and Eugenics
March 9, 2010Thoughts on Sermon Preparation
March 9, 2010The Growing and Living Church
March 4, 2010Crushing Idols, the Brook Kidron and the Cross of Christ
March 1, 2010Thomas Sowell and the Intellectuals
March 1, 2010New Book on the Atonement
March 1, 2010Hear These Words (Acts 2:14-39)
February 25, 2010Church Planting Interview
February 22, 2010John Owen on the Meaning of Hebrews 13:20
February 21, 2010When Jesus Shows Up at Pentecost
February 20, 2010Phil Ryken is the New President of Wheaton
February 20, 2010Much More Then
February 19, 2010Michael Haykin Interview
February 18, 2010A Theology of the Cross or of the Breast?
February 17, 2010Witsius on the Apostle's Creed
February 17, 2010Covenantal Baptism
February 16, 2010Dennis Johnson on Infant Baptism
February 15, 2010The Purpose of Pentecost
February 15, 2010Better By the Dozen (Acts 1:12-26)
February 13, 2010Choosing Apostolic Number 12
February 12, 2010Muller on Confessing Five Points
February 12, 2010Pastoral Lessons from Larry King?
February 12, 2010Ian Hamilton Sermons
February 10, 2010Presbyterian Mission in Haiti Relief Efforts
February 10, 2010Hart and Bucey on Epistemology and Two Kingdoms
February 8, 2010Text, Context, Cultures PHD Program
February 8, 2010The Acts of the Ascended Christ
February 6, 2010The Progress of Doctrine
February 6, 2010Jonathan Edwards on Christ's Purchase of the Spirit
February 5, 2010New Year's Sermon
February 5, 2010On Biblical Numerology
February 5, 2010Jay Adams on Rescuing Straying Sheep
February 5, 2010When the Man Comes Around
February 5, 2010George Scipione on Drunkeness vs. Disease
February 4, 2010IPC Lord's Supper Conference
February 3, 2010Eric Alexander on the Work of the Spirit in the Book of Acts
February 3, 2010The Cross and the New Division
February 2, 2010Adolph Monod: Five Discourses
February 1, 2010New Perspective(s) on Paul Audio Resources
February 1, 201010 Helpful Books on the Acts of the Apostles
January 30, 2010Murray on Sermon Introductions
January 29, 2010Christ the Center Interview with R. Scott Clark on Casper Olevianus
January 29, 2010Westminster Assembly Project Press Release
January 27, 2010The Rap on Economic Philosophy
January 27, 2010Sinclair Ferguson on Preaching to Itching Ears
January 25, 2010No One Spoke Like Him
January 25, 2010Siouxlands Presbytery and the Federal Vision
January 24, 2010The Christology of Sacrificial Countdown at the Feast of Tabernacles
January 22, 2010Joel Beeke Interview on the Puritans
January 22, 2010Abraham and Rahab in James 2
January 19, 2010Upcoming Conferences
January 17, 2010Pants on the Ground
January 17, 2010Presbyterian Mission in Haiti Update
January 15, 2010Pastoral Ministry: Learning or Doing?
January 15, 2010Support Our Family in Christ in Haiti
January 13, 2010The Tongue of the Dying Thief
January 13, 2010On Jesus' Seeking and Saving
January 10, 2010DeYoung and McClurg on Sexual Sanity
January 8, 2010John Piper Angola Prison Q & A Audio
January 7, 2010Christological Purpose of the Exodus and Wilderness Experience
January 6, 2010Dr. David Murray's Blog
January 5, 2010Faith Comes By Hearing 2009 Top Audio Picks
January 5, 2010Brit Hume Explains Advice to Tiger
January 4, 2010The Heavenly Scholar
January 1, 2010Death as a Limiting Consequence